Electrochemical Processes Unit (IMDEA Energía)

The Electrochemical Processes Unit (UPEQ) is dedicated to the research and development of electrochemical storage systems of high energy efficiency, both to connect them to renewable energy sources and to sustainable transport. At the unit seeks to maintain a balance between basic and applied research to provide, first, knowledge generation and, secondly, its transfer to the industry.

The R & D related to flow batteries developed by the UPEQ have two main action lines:

  • Low cost flow batteries incorporating more economic electrolytes, or that do not require separation membrane, or low-cost designs manufacturing; and
  • Flow batteries of high energy density incorporating organic redox pairs in aqueous and nonaqueous media.

In both cases, the activities include the UPEQ fundamental characterization tests in electrodes and electrolytes half-cell laboratory tests flow cell laboratory, bench and pilot plant testing. Cell sizes that can be tested range from 10 cm2 to 3600 cm2 geometric area of electrode modules from 5 to 50 cells

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  • Aprovechamiento Térmico de la Energía Solar de manera Gestionable, Eficiente y Modular en Sistemas de Alta Concentración (SOLGEMAC). Enero 2010 – Diciembre 2013. Proyecto con financiación Regional (Comunidad de Madrid), S2009/ENE-1617.
    This project aims to establish the scientific and technological bases that allow developing new systems of thermal and chemical utilization of concentrated solar energy more efficiently, manageable and modular approach. For this research focuses on the search for technological options to develop a future generation of power plants and solar thermal systems to open the range of applications to new thermodynamic cycles and thermal machines more efficient and endothermic chemical processes at high temperature. Improved Manageability is pursued through the development of thermochemical storage systems, production and storage of hydrogen in electrochemical storage and flow batteries.
  • Reactor Electroquímico Multiuso para aplicaciones energéticas y medioambientales (REM). Octubre 2010-Diciembre 2013. Proyecto INNPACTO de referencia: IPT-440000-2010-012.
    The main objective of this project is to design a multi electrochemical reactor adaptable easily to different types of applications. Some applications have been identified such as flow batteries for storing electrical energy and capacitive deionization for treating waters with high salt contents. The project also includes the design of hydraulic, electrical and regulating the reactor to facilitate proper operation in various applications auxiliary systems.
  • La Plataforma Fotovoltaica Total (LPT). Julio 2015-Junio 2018. Proyecto financiado con el programa RETOS colaboración, referencia RTC-2015-4153-3.
    The "Total Photovoltaic Plant (LPT)" aims to address many of the problems of network integration of renewable and photovoltaic solar energy in particular. The fundamentals are different technologies used in power electronics, electrochemical storage and advanced control systems. This range arises with two horizons. The first sought to integrate innovative technical solutions form inside the photovoltaic plant already available, being managed by advanced control systems. The second seeks to develop fully adapted to the needs of techno-economic problems.
  • Baterías de flujo orgánicas para VE de recarga ultra-rápida en surtidores convencionales (BAFO). Enero 2014 – Enero 2015. Financiación a tavés del programa Inspîre de Repsol.
    The aim of the project is the development of the basic components of a new type of flow batteries for use in Electric vehicle. New electrolytes for negative and positive compartments, selective ion exchange membrane.



  • Prof. Marc A. Anderson: Principal Investigator
  • Dr. Jesús Palma: Senior Researcher
  • Dra. Rebeca Marcilla: Senior Researcher
  • Dr. Enrique García-Quismondo: Posdoctoral Researcher
  • Paula Navalpotro: Predoctoral Researcher
  • Veselin Miroslavov: Predoctoral Researcher
  •  Ignacio Almonacid: Tecnician


Selected papers:

  • Leung, P.; Palma, J.; Garcia-Quismondo, E.; Sanz, L.; Mohamed, M.R.; Anderson, M. “Evaluation of electrode materials for all-copper hybrid flow batteries”. Journal of Power Sources, 2016, 310, 1-11.
  • Navalpotro, P.; Palma, J.; Anderson, M.; Marcilla, R. “High performance hybrid supercapacitors by using para-Benzoquinone ionic liquid redox electrolyte”. Journal of Power Sources, 2016, 306, 711-717.
  • Sanz, L.; Lloyd, D.; Magdalena, E.; Palma, J.; Anderson, M. “Study and characterization of positive electrolytes for application in the aqueous all-copper redox flow battery”. Journal of Power Sources, 2015, 278, 175-182. Impact factor: 6.217
  • Sanz, L.; Lloyd, D.; Magdalena, E.; Palma, J.; Kontturi, K. “Description and performance of a novel aqueous all-copper redox flow battery”. Journal of Power Sources, 2014, 268, 121-128. Impact factor: 5.211
  • Sanz, L.; Palma J.; García-Quismondo, E.; Anderson, M. “The effect of chloride ion complexation on reversibility and redox potential of the Cu(II)/ Cu(I) couple for use in redox flow batteries”. Journal of Power Sources, 2013,224, 278-284.



  • Patente Nº ES 2486091 B1. Batería de flujo acuosa con pares redox orgánicos.
  • Solicitud de patente Nº P201630327. Bateria redox con electrolitos inmiscibles.